Egyptian Medicinal Plants

 

1. Roselle fruit (Dark and Light)

2. Majoranum hortensis

3. Sweet Basil

4. Camomile

5. Henna

6. Sage (North Sinai)

7. Tamarind

8. Moghat (Owinat)

9. Arak (Salvadora persica)

10. Calotropis procera Aiton

11. Urgina maritime

 

 

1. Roselle fruit (Dark and Light)

 

Latin (Scientific) name: Hibiscus sabdariffa. Family: Malvaceae. Erect, mostly branched, annual; stem to3 . 5m tall, variously colored dark green to red; leaves alternate, glabrous, long-petiolate, palmately divided into3 – 7lobes, with serrate margins; flowers large, short-peduncled, red to yellow with dark center; capsules 5 cm long,5 . 3 cm wide; root a deep penetrating taproot. Properties (Uses): antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent, cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, diuretic, emollient, purgative, refrigerant, resolvent, sedative, stomachic, and tonic, roselle is a folk remedy for abscesses, bilious conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and strangury. The drink made by placing, the calyx in water, is said to be a folk remedy for cancer. Medicinally, leaves are emollient, and are much used in Guinea as a diuretic, refrigerant, and sedative; fruits are antiscorbutic; leaves, seeds, and ripe calyces are diuretic and antiscorbutic; and the succulent calyx, boiled in water, is used as a drink in bilious attacks; flowers contain gossypetin, anthocyanin, and glucoside hibiscin, which may have diuretic and choleretic effects, decreasing the viscosity of the blood, reducing blood pressure and stimulating intestinal peristalsis.

 

 

2. Majoranum hortensis

 

A perennial herb. The underground portion consists of a fibrous root system from which arises the aerial, brown stem attaining a height of about 30 cm. Branches are woody, thin and hairy. Leaves are opposite and short ovate. Inflorescence consists of nearly globular spikes of small reddish-white, bilabiate flowers. Part used: The dried leaves with or without a small portion of flowering tops.  Uses: Mainly as flavoring agent, medicinally as stimulant, carminative, emmenagogue.

 

 

3. Sweet Basil

 

BASIL, SWEET (Ocimum basilicum) - Family: Labiatae. Annual herb.  Height : 30 – 60 cm. The stem is obtusely quadrangular, the labiates flowers are white, in whorls in the axils of the leaves, the calyx with the upper lobe rounded and spreading. The leaves, grayish-green beneath and dotted with dark oil cells, are opposite, 1 inch long and 1/3 inch broad, stalked and peculiarly smooth, soft and cool to the touch, and if slightly bruised exile a delightful scent of cloves. The delicious leaves can be used either fresh or dried. Bright green leaves have sweet, pungent odor when brushed. Uses: Flavoring agent and carminative, Basil has been occasionally used for mild nervous disorders and for the alleviation of wandering rheumatic pains- the dried leaves, in the form of snuff, are said to be a cure for nervous headaches.

4. Camomile

 

Latin (Scientific) name: Matrecaria chamomilla L. Family Compositae. A branched annual herb, attaining up to 60 cm. in height and bearing alternate leaves. The flower heads show a conical, hollow receptacle, devoi of paleae and with white ligulate florets and yellow tubular florets. Properties (Uses): The dried flower heads of Matrecaria chamomilla, fundamental for resolving the inflammatory processes. The action is further aided by the presence of PANTHENOL with known moisturizing properties, encouraging the tissue reproduction process.

 

 

5. Henna

 

Lawsonia alba This plant is an ancient Egyptian medicinal plants used as a natural pigments. New researches recorded that this plant paste can be used as anti toe fungus, anti high pressure specially in head.

 

 

6. Sage (North Sinai)

Latin (Scientific) name: Salvia officinalis. It is a perennial shrub. Height - 18 inches. The roots are brown and fibrous. The stems are hairy and bear opposite leaves. Flowers are apparently in racemes where the cluster is reduced to a flower. Active (Chemical) constituents:volatile oil containing borneol, a sesquiterpene, pinene, thujone and cineol; bitter principles and tannin uses as carminative and a condiment. The leaves can also be used to make a tea which may help relieve colds and sore throats.

 

 

7. Tamarind

 

(Owinat - Egypt)

Latin (Scientific) name: Tamarindus indica L. Family: ceasalpiniaceae (fabaceae). Common name: tamarind, tamarinde, celagi, tangal asam, acem. Arabic tamr hindi simply means “date of India” (“date” being a simply means “date of India” (“date” being a general name for the fruits of various palm trees); needless to say, tamarind neither stems from India nor is it related to palm trees. Tamarind is a large, beautiful evergreen tropical tree that can grow up to75 ' tall. The trunk has cracks, down and across; the bark is brown-gray. It has a dense and spreading crown of bipinnate foliage and numerous yellow, with red and purple filaments, flowers. The brown woody pod contains the seeds; black, shiny squares surrounded by pulp. Tamarind is a slow grower but can live and still remains productive for 150 years or longer! The pulp of tamarind is light brownish-red; sweetish acidic and edible. The fruit pulp is rich in tartaric - and citric acids, high amount of vitamin C and sugar.   The fruit pulp is used in syrup, juice concentrates and exotic food specialties like chutney, curries, pickles and meat sauces. It is an ingredient in cardiac - and blood sugar reducing medicine. Medical actions and uses: cathartic, astringent, febrifuge, antiseptic, refrigerant. In Suriname's traditional medicine, the bark is used for diarrhea. Bathing with an infusion of the boiled leaves helps against skin disorders, such as scabies.

 

 

8. Moghat (Owinat)

 

Latin (Scientific) name: Glossostemon bruguieri, family (Sterculiaceae). It is a shrub with thick long tapering dark colored roots (70-100 cm in length and 5-8 cm in breadth)  The new biflavone moghatin (3″′-hydroxycupressuflavone) was isolated from Moghat, the dried peeled roots of Glossostemon bruguieri (Desf.), together with five known compounds: 4′-methoxyisoscutellargin, sesamin, chrysophanol, emodin and methoxyemodin (physcion). G. bruguieri (Desf.) (known in Arabic as Moghat) are used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout and spasms, and as a tonic and nutritive agent [3]. After childbirth, women have especially used hot drinks of powdered Moghat as a general tonic and lactagogue. Due to its high content of mucilage (up to 27% based on dry weight) [2, 4-6], Moghat is also prescribed as a demulcent agent. 

 

 

9. Arak (Salvadora persica)

 

Young stems of 3 to 5 mm are used as toothbrushes. A tooth stick is also said to relieve toothache and gum disease, and the leaves are used as a mouthwash and for tooth and gum problems. The bark is said to contain an antibiotic which suppress growth of bacteria and the formation of plaque in the mouth. The roots are prepared as a salve and rubbed on the face for headaches. They are used for general body pain, gonorrhea, back pains, chest diseases, and stomachaches. Latex from the bark is used for treating sores. Seeds are used as a tonic and seed oil is used on the skin for rheumatism. The leaves and bark contain the alkaloid trimetylamine. The seed is rich in oil and contains lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids. There is potential for making soaps, candles, and using it as a substitute for coconut  oil.

 

 

10. Calotropis procera Aiton

 

Wild medicinal and poisons plant grown widly in the Egyptian deserts. Latin (Scientific) name: Calotropis procera . English name: calotropis, rubber tree, apple of Sodom, mudar, madar, king's crown, roostertree. Family: Asclepiadaceae. Spreading shrub or small tree to 4 m, exuding copious milky sap when cut or broken; leaves opposite, grey-green, large up to 15 cm long and 10 cm broad, with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk; flowers waxy white, petals 5, purple-tipped inside and with a central purplish crown, carried in stalked clusters at the ends of the branches; fruit grey-green, inflated, 8 to 12 cm long, containing numerous seeds with tufts of long silky hairs at one end. Active (Chemical) constituents: Cardiac glycosides, Usharin, Usharidin, Calotropin. Properties (Uses): Mudar root-bark is very largely used there as a treatment for elephantiasis and leprosy, and is efficacious in cases of chronic eczema, also for diarrhea and dysentery.

 

 

11. Urgina maritime

 

Wild medicinal plants from family Lilliaceae grown in sandy plans in the Egyptian deserst spicialy north costal areas and Sinai. It perennial herb. The aerial parts consist of a succulent, glaucous, green scape. Height:  1.0 m and Width:  0.3 m. The bulb is about 20 cm. in diameter, often weighs about 2 kg. and lies partially embedded in the sandy ground. Properties (Uses): Urginea Maritima is used to heal neurological pains, skin problems, deep wounds and eye afflictions. The plant also contains materials that are used in conventional medicine to treat asthma, bronchitis and heart disorders. The bulbs were an ancient source of rodenticide products replaced later on by warfarin and modern anticoagulant raticides. Since rats have developed resistance to such products there is now renewed interest in the species. The bulb contains five different bufadienolides (proscillaridin A, scillaren A, scillirosid, gammabufotalin, and scillirosidin).